• Elizar Elizar Universitas Syiah Kuala
  • Cut Khairunnisak Universitas Syiah Kuala
Keywords: teacher belief, student belief, higher order thinking, lower order thinking, mathematics


Teacher beliefs play a fundamental role in mathematics teaching and learning, as they will ultimately influence the teacher's classroom practices. Student beliefs on a subject matter also hold equal importance as they will be reflected in how the students approach the learning and related issues to the subject. The importance of research on teachers' beliefs stems from the possible relationship between teacher beliefs and student beliefs. This descriptive quantitative study aimed to measure the degree of conformity between teacher and student beliefs concerning mathematics related to Higher Order Thinking (HOT) and Lower Order Thinking (LOT). The population was all Year 9 students in Aceh, Indonesia, and the samples were 1135 Year 9 students and 46 Year 9 mathematics teachers from 25 schools selected through stratified random sampling. Data collection was obtained through teacher and student questionnaires,  and data were analyzed descriptively by SPSS 20. The finding of this study revealed that teacher beliefs concerning mathematics related to HOT were highly positive (83%). While the percentage of students who hold highly positive beliefs concerning mathematics related to HOT was just over 50%, indicating the discrepancy between teacher and student beliefs. However, regarding the beliefs concerning mathematics related to LOT, teacher and student beliefs conformed; they had somewhat positive beliefs (68% and 71.30%, respectively). This study implies that teachers need to promote HOTS in mathematics teaching at schools to foster students’ positive beliefs toward HOT.


Battista, M. T. (1994). Teacher beliefs and the reform movement in mathematics education. The Phi Delta Kappan, 75(6), 462-470.

Belbase, S. (2019). Meanings, dimensions, and categories of mathematics teacher beliefs: A navigation through the literature. International Journal on Emerging Mathematics Education, 3(1), 1-26.

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. Vol. 1: Cognitive domain. New York: McKay, 20–24.

Bobis, J., Way, J., Anderson, J., & Martin, A. J. (2016). Challenging teacher beliefs about student engagement in mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 19(1), 33–55.

Brookhart, S. M. (2010). How to assess higher-order thinking skills in your classroom. ASCD.

Carter, G., & Norwood, K. S. (1997). The relationship between teacher and student beliefs about mathematics. School Science and Mathematics, 97(2), 62–67.

Collins, R. (2014). Skills for the 21st century: Teaching higher-order thinking. Curriculum & Leadership Journal, 12(14).

Devine, D., Fahie, D., &McGillicuddy, D. (2013). What is ‘good teaching? Teacher be-liefs and practices about their teaching. Irish Educational Studies, 32(1), 83-108.

Engel, L. C., Rutkowski, D., & Thompson, G. (2019). Toward an international measure of global competence? A critical look at the PISA 2018 framework. Globalization, Societies and Education, 17(2), 117–131.

Gurria, A. (2016). PISA 2015 results in focus. PISA in Focus, (67), 1.

Hannula, M. S. (2018). Young learners’ mathematics-related affect: A commentary on concepts, methods, and developmental trends. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 309–316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-018-9865-9

Hart, L. C. (2002). Pre-service teachers' beliefs and practice after participating in an integrated content/methods course. School Science and Mathematics, 102(1), 4-14.

Kloosterman, P. (2002). Beliefs about mathematics and mathematics learning in the secondary school: Measurement and implications for motivation. In Beliefs: A hidden variable in mathematics education? (pp. 247–269). Springer.

Levin, B. B. (2014). The development of teachers’ beliefs. In International handbook of research on teachers’ beliefs (pp. 60–77). Routledge.

Markovits, Z., &Forgasz, H. (2017). “Mathematics is like a lion”: Elementary students’ beliefs about mathematics. Educational studies in mathematics, 96(1), 49-64.

McDonough, A., & Sullivan, P. (2014). Seeking insights into young children’s beliefs about mathematics and learning. Educational Studies in Mathematics, doi:10.1007/s16049-014-9565-z.

Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., & Hooper, M. (2016). TIMSS advanced 2015 international results in advanced mathematics and physics. Boston: Boston College, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center.

Nishino, T. (2012). Modeling teacher beliefs and practices in context: A multimeth-ods approach. The Modern Language Journal, 96(3), 380-399.

Op’tEynde, P., De Corte, E., & Verschaffel, L. (2003). Framing students’ mathemat-ics-related beliefs. In G. C. Leder, E. Pehkonen, & G. Törner (Eds.), Beliefs: A hid-den variable in mathematics education? (pp. 13-37). Dordrecht: Kluwer Aca-demic Publishers.

Perry, B., Tracey, D., & Howard, P. (1999). Head mathematics teachers’ beliefs about the learning and teaching of mathematics. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 11(1), 39-53.

Presmeg, N. (2002). Beliefs about the nature of mathematics in bridging everyday and school mathematical practices. In G. C. Leder, E. Pehkonen, & G. Torner (Eds.), Beliefs: A hidden variable in mathematics education? (pp. 293-312). The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Rubie‐Davies, C. M., Flint, A., & McDonald, L. G. (2012). Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual factors: What are the relation-ships?. British journal of educational psychology, 82(2), 270-288.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (1992). Learning to think mathematically: Problem-solving, meta-cognition, and sense-making in mathematics. In D. A. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 334-370). New York: Macmillan.

Thompson, A. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and conceptions: A synthesis of the research. In D. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 127-146). New York: Macmillan.

Usnul, U., Johar, R., & Sofyan, H. (2019). Potential effect of PISA equivalent mathematical reasoning abilities questions using the context of Aceh’s traditional houses for junior high school students. JRAMathEdu (Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education), 4(2).

Zakaria, E., & Musiran, N. (2010). Beliefs about the nature of mathematics, mathematics teaching and learning among trainee teachers. The social sciences, 5(4), 346-351.

Zohar, A., Degani, A., & Vaaknin, E. (2001). Teachers’ beliefs about low-achieving students and higher order thinking. Teaching and teacher education, 17(4), 469–485.

How to Cite
Elizar, E., & Khairunnisak, C. (2022). EXPLORING TEACHER’S AND STUDENTS’ BELIEFS CONCERNING HIGHER ORDER THINKING IN MATHEMATICS. Transformasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika Dan Matematika, 6(1), 87-94. https://doi.org/10.36526/tr.v6i1.1958